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WHO发表生物技术转基因食品的常识-【zixun】

发布时间:2021-10-12 22:30:50 阅读: 来源:起重机厂家

现代生物技术应用于食品产业,对人类的健康问题提出了新的机遇和挑战。对于公众健康部分的潜在益处包括改变食物营养成分、减少潜在过敏物质和提高粮食生产系统的效率。另一方面,通过基因改造手段生产消费性粮食,这种生产方式对人类健康的潜在作用必须严格测试。如果现代生物技术能够真正成为提高我们生产粮食的手段,那它必须通过彻底的评估。原先的观念认为用没有此方面认知能力的消费者角度来看待这一领域所有相关问题,这种趋势是肤浅的。而消费者应该被关注并告知。

未来的这一领域的发展将使WHO在四个主要方面展开工作:

A。在健全科学基础上建立科学的安全评估框架

从现代生物技术中制造出的食物,需要促进对其健全安全与风险评估框架的建立。除了将其列入生物技术衍生食物法典(Codex Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology)外,WHO将会在健全科学基础上提出解决新问题的原则和指导方针。

B 。对于现代生物技术制造的食物,制定营养方面安全评估的标准方法

提高对现代生物技术制造的新食物进行营养评估是需要的,事实上是新型食物的特殊营养性状。我们需要有一个更加注重营养评估新的现代生物科技食品。其实这些想法已经是粮农组织/世界卫生组织专家磋商对于现代生物技术食物的一部分,但增强其影响是必要的。这种影响应该作用于其他政府论坛,如新型食物的经合组织。

C 。将风险评估与风险管理和交流连接起来

在国内与国际上,将风险评估支出与风险管理与交流的作用连接起来,这一迫切需求是有效的机制和方法。对于正在规划阶段的风险交流作用,消费者和其他有关各方的新思维应该进一步加强。这一领域已经取得的经验也应该用于食品安全的其他发面。

D、对健康和发展政策更广泛的角度

通过现代生物技术开发的新食品并不总是被认为是符合 “公共利益”。这些新产品有潜在健康或产品效益风险点,而发展中国家的产品可以改变这一观点。这些产品需要一个更全面的评估,找到这些产品所有方面的变化(健康效益,营养,安全,发展和社会经济系统等)。在这项工作的准备过程中,WHO需要加强和其他伙伴之间的合作。这些合作不仅仅是相关领域的技术问题,如生产效率和安全评估方面;也需要认识到如何使现代生物技术生产食物用于满足发展中国家的需要。

附英文原文:

General information about biotechnology (GM foods)

The application of modern biotechnology to food production presents new opportunities and challenges for human health. The potential benefits to the public health sector include altering the nutrient content of foods, decreasing their allergenic potential, and improving the efficiency of food production systems. On the other hand, the potential effects on human health of the consumption of food produced through genetic modification must be carefully examined. Modern biotechnology must be thoroughly evaluated if it is to bring about a true improvement in our way of producing food .The tendency to explain all concerns in this area as a problem of perceptions originating in the consumers incapacity to understand is simplistic. In stead the consumers right to be concerned as well as to be informed should be acknowledged。

The future developments in this area will focus WHO work in four major areas:

A. Establishing scientific safety assessment frameworks based on sound science

There is a need to facilitate the establishment of sound safety and risk assessment frameworks for foods derived from modern biotechnology. In addition to providing input to the Codex Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology, WHO will develop the principles and guidelines for addressing emerging issues based on sound science。

B. Standardizing methods for nutritional aspects in safety assessments of food derived from modern biotechnology。

There is a need for an increased focus on nutritional assessments of new foods derived from modern biotechnology and in fact from novel foods in general with specific nutritional traits. These types of considerations are already part of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultations on food derived from modern biotechnology, but a strengthened effort is needed. This effort should be coordinated with efforts in other intergovernmental fora, such as the OECD Task Force on Novel Foods。

C. Linking risk assessments to risk management and communication。

Effective mechanisms and approaches are urgently needed both at national and at international level to bridge the outcomes of risk assessments into risk management and risk communication efforts. New thinking towards involving consumers and other interested parties already at the planning stages of risk communication efforts need to be developed. And the experience gained in this area could be used in other aspects of food safety。

D. The broader perspective of health and development policy

The development of new foods through modern biotechnology has not always been perceived to be guided by a perspective of "public good". New products with potential health or production benefits in developing countries could change this. Such products will need a more holistic assessment, looking into all aspects of such production changes (health benefit, nutrition, safety, development and socioeconomical issues, etc). In preparation of this work there is a need for WHO to strengthen its collaboration with intersectoral partners. Such efforts would entail technical issues related to such areas as production efficiency and safety assessments but also more general issues of how foods derived from modern biotechnology could be made useful in addressing the needs of developing countries。

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